Tmux and I in 2017

Writing Getting started with Vim taught me an interesting lesson. I had some notes on the subject and I spent more time trying to decide if it was worth turning them into an article than actually doing so. I did publish it and the response was great, many people read the article and I got good feedback. It made me happy because it was unexpected. My takeaway is that I should not try to guess if people would care or not about what I write. I’m not good at it and, after all, I enjoy writing so much I can afford not to care about the success of my writing. The joy of writing makes it all worth it. A few weeks ago I had a look at my tmux configuration and workflow after a long time and took some notes along the way. This article is an expanded version of those notes.

What’s tmux? #

tmux is a terminal multiplexer. To be honest, if I’d be hearing this for the first time, my reaction would be “OK, what is it?”. I like wikipedia’s definition:

tmux is a software application that can be used to multiplex several virtual consoles, allowing a user to access multiple separate terminal sessions inside a single terminal window or remote terminal session.

You can create new sessions, attach to existing ones and detach from the current session. Tmux keeps track of your detached sessions in the background so that you can attach to them at a later point. The feature comes handy if you think of sessions as projects; I’ll explore this more later in the article.

Why tmux? #

When it comes to tooling, why use X instead of Y is pretty personal, so all I can offer is my answer. As a young programmer, I had a fanatic aversion to the mouse. I stayed away from it as much as I could. We’re creatures of habit and, even though my childish aversion is gone, the habit is not. Programming still means using only the keyboard for me. And when I write code, I always change the smallest amount of code. That came with experience. I change one line at a time or less if I can. I need feedback at every change: most of the times that means running a specific command or executing tests. Even though I tried many automated runners for Vim, I can’t help but manually switch windows to check things. It’s a simple workflow and I like to craft the commands on my own. I don’t want my editor to cleverly decide for me what happens when I save a file (only one exception: automating reloading of React applications. For some reason, I love that). I use Vim for everything I program and I do everything else from a zsh shell. As my workflow for programming consists of:

  • one vim instance and,
  • one or more zsh instances,

tmux is what makes this workflow possible for me nowadays. That’s why I consider it indispensable. It allows me to move shell sessions around, rearrange them, open new ones on the fly. I can resize windows when I need more space. And I only need the keyboard for that. I may spend an entire pomodoro session (in English that’s a 25-minute session) without ever touching the mouse. Since I can scroll windows up and down with the keyboard only, I find myself creating tmux sessions even when I don’t need multiple windows. I can stay mouse free as long as I’m in the terminal.

That’s in short why I use tmux. If you’re new to tmux and you want to give it a try, my advice is to do so only if your workflow is heavily based on shell sessions. I don’t think I would invest in learning it otherwise.

Modern configuration with tmp #

Recently I’ve ran into a project called Tmux Plugin Manager and I’m happy it happened. The tool is easy to install and it simplifies your existing tmux configuration a great deal. For those who are new to tmux, it can act as a guide. Over the past few years, some patterns on how to configure tmux emerged. Some plugins are helpful in that sense, because they’re built with those patterns in mind.

Installing the plugin manager is a simple procedure, you can read it here. Once you’re setup, I suggest you install the following plugins:

  • sensible It’s inspired by the interesting vim plugin and, as the documentation explains, it’s a set of basic settings “everyone can agree on”.
  • pain control Being able to control panes with comfort is important for tmux users; tmux wouldn’t be tmux without panes. Despite the strange name, pain control provides you with a good set of pane navigation bindings. These bindings are widely used in the tmux community. If you’re a tmux user, chances are you’re already using them, so installing the plugin will simplify your configuration. The bindings are inspired by Vim navigations which makes the context switch for Vim user effortless.
  • battery Battery is a small plugin that shows battery percentage (or fancy icons) in tmux status-right. It’s a little plugin but it’s annoying to have the same feature without it, as you need a small script to extract the information from your system. Most tmux users rely on such a feature because they end up spending most of their time in a tmux session. Being able to check the battery status without dealing with scripting is a big plus.

The GitHub organisation tmux-plugins has many other plugins you can find interesting, so I suggest you have a look.

Handling projects with tmux #

My workflow is based on the concept of project folder. At least, I’m used to calling it so; I guess you can call the same concept with different names. Workspace comes to my mind. The idea is that all the code related to the same project lives under the same root folder. Ideally, that’s one repository for your version control system of choice. My projects, including my writing, are all organised around this idea. I assume it’s a pretty common way of handling different projects. Please let me know if you’re doing it differently, I find the topic fascinating.

Since the concept is so central to my workflow, I wrote a small shell script to handle my projects. Here is the script:


set -e

source ~/.zsh/functions.zsh

if [ -z "$1" ];
  tmux ls 2>/dev/null

if [ -z "$TMUX" ]
  for project in $(projects)
    name=`basename $project`
    if ! tmux has-session -t $name 2>/dev/null; then
      tmux new-session -s $name -c $project -d
      tmux send-keys "cd $project" 'C-m' 'C-l'
  tmux a -t $1
  tmux switch -t $1

Calling the script with no arguments lists the available tmux sessions. I use it rarely, but it’s still kind of useful. If you pass foo as an argument, t will switch to the session foo. As you can see, it’s rudimentary: it creates all the sessions at once. I see no point in complicating it as the output of $(project) changes rarely. It does the job for me: I can switch between projects using a simple command. And, since all the sessions are created at once, the switch is instantaneous. In my experience, speed is a common trait of simple solutions with reasonable constraints.

Sourcing the functions.zsh is necessary because I need the following function:

# List all my code dirs
projects() {
  ls -d ~/src/*/ ~/src/*/ | grep -E -w -v '(bin|pkg|[^/]+\.[^/]+)\/'

The function returns all the directories of what I consider projects. With the exception of Go code (which leads to some ugly grepping too), I have all my projects in $HOME/src. I’m a zsh user and I’m used to autocompleting everything, so I wrote a small script for t:

#compdef t

lines=("${(@f)$(projects | xargs -n1 basename)}")

_arguments "1: :($lines)"

I don’t remember how this works , as I wrote it a while ago. It does work so I thought it was good enough to share. My dotfiles repository contains all my tmux configuration if you’re curious. The projects function, the t script and the CDPATH feature give me the comfort I need to jump around projects.