The Appeal of Monorepo

This is a long read. You will find a table of contents right after the introduction.

Before I dive into what appeals to me and what doesn’t about a monorepo approach, let me share a definition from

A monorepo is a single repository containing multiple distinct projects, with well-defined relationships.

It’s a thoughtful sentence; it underlines both the co-location of different projects and the meaningful relationship among them.

I’m happy with this definition as long as project=code+docs. I never forget about the docs.

Fundamentally, what I find most compelling about the monorepo approach is a combination of two ideas:

  • Less is more.
  • Co-locating all the projects in the same repo makes it easier to impose constraints on the whole codebase.

These two ideas are powerful in their simplicity but, as mentioned in the wonderful book How to take smart notes, “taking simple ideas seriously” is a not as easy as it sounds.

Often enough when someone says simple, we hear easy. That is a perfect starting point for this discussion.

Here’s the table of contents if you prefer to jump to a specific section:

Simple ain’t easy #

Conceptually, going monorepo seems pretty straightforward. You only need to put all your code into one repository, right?

In reality, there are many things to take into account if you want to reap all its benefits.

If you have an old codebase with lots of projects, the migration to a monorepo is not trivial. Each repository has its own little world of configuration, version control history, and so on.

In most cases, there’s also an educational cost. Monorepo is not as common as it could be. Many developers, especially those that only worked in early-stage startups, may have never worked with a monorepo before.

The irony of this is that early-stage startups would benefit quite a lot from the simplicity of a monorepo โ€“ even if they would not use any particular technique or tool.

Literally just having all the code in one place helps. More on this later.

The most difficult part of going monorepo is the tooling which is why I structured the article so that the discussion about tooling is towards the end.

It’s easier to talk about tooling once I discussed some benefits of this approach.

Let’s start where a new project would start: setting it up.

Setup costs #

There’s a lot going on when creating a new project. A typical setup involves implementing what I call “project infrastructure”:

  • Build scripts
  • Test scripts
  • Deployment scripts
  • Permissions for version control

It doesn’t seem much, but it adds up very quickly in a growing organisation. On top of that, it’s mostly done by copy and paste of an existing setup.

The problem with a polyrepo (as in the opposite of a monorepo. I stole the naming from is that the setup cost doesn’t decrease as much as you’d expect from a copy and paste process (or maybe exactly because of that?).

Furthermore, any update to the project infrastructure needs to be manually replicated to any relevant project.

The monorepo approach is quite different.

First off, there are no setup costs for version control. New projects end up in the same repository you’re already using. It seems too obvious but I’d be surprised to hear that you’ve never seen wasted time because of faulty permissions setup.

Build, test, and deployment scripts costs decrease over time if you keep using the same languages and framework. You’re not copy and pasting setup, you’re using the existing setup.

The difference with a polyrepo here is staggering. Imagine you’d do with code what you do with a polyrepo: always copying code instead of using functions/modules/libraries. How does that sound?

Setup costs are still high when projects introduce new languages or frameworks (often less of a problem that a language) to the repo.

Only some languages and frameworks receive “official” support in the monorepo which is why teams tend to be more conservative regarding new technology.

Everyone wants to move fast but no one wants to spend days (sometimes weeks) before they can have a good developer experience using shiny new tech.

I’m using quotes for official because I have seen this happening mostly implicitly.

One version to rule them all #

As soon as a codebase consists of more than one project, questions about versions should arise:

  • Should project B use the same version of library X used in project A?
  • Should we allow a new version of language Y in project C?

I say should but, in my personal experience, they’re never really asked in a polyrepo setup. After all, each project is its own little world.

The larger the organisation (therefore the codebase), the more frequent diverging versions are.

You may also run into the same problem within a monorepo. But the beauty of a monorepo approach is that you can put simple, strong constraints in place with a relatively low effort.

In this case, you can lift dependencies from projects and share them across the whole code base. One version of a given dependency for all the dependent projects.

Some tools work like this by default. I would argue that they’re “right” โ€“ this is a better default for dependencies.

With this constraint in place, dependency versions literally can’t diverge.

It’s also true of language versions. For example, say your build tools only support Java 17, then all the Java projects will support Java 17. Yes, it’s that simple.

This idea is often met with some resistance by developers because they find the constraint too strong. In practice, I haven’t met any good argument in favour of multiple versions of the same language. There may be some exceptions for dependencies.

This one-version approach is even more interesting with internal dependencies. In a polyrepo setup, internal libraries must be treated as if they were a public library. They need a release cycle.

In a monorepo setup, you can have the whole company on the latest and only version of a given internal library.

This constraint ensures that whoever changes the API of an internal library is also responsible for changing all caller sites.

One version of everything in the codebase will slow down adoption of new shiny things. Which, of course, is a good thing.

Sometimes, however, certain upgrades have to happen really fast. The obvious example is security upgrades of external dependencies.

In a polyrepo, you’d have to do the same thing in every single project relying on a dependency.

In a monorepo, you bump the version, and you’re good to go.

Ch-ch-ch-ch-changes #

I don’t really need an excuse to squeeze the genius of David Bowie in a conversation about monorepo, but I was genuinely thinking about him when I first drafted this paragraph. So here we are.

Changing code is the most common operation any organisation executes on a daily basis in their code base.

In my opinion, this is where a monorepo really shines.

Atomicity #

If all the code is in the same repo, then executing a change atomically becomes a trivial operation compared to the same change in a polyrepo.

It’s easy to underestimate the value of atomic changes, but they really simplify many operations.

An example I like is code style conventions. Historically, I have been always reluctant to discuss styling because these conversations felt goalless in a polyrepo. It’s often so expensive to change the whole codebase to a different convention, you know you’re not going to do it.

In a monorepo, these conversations feel different. If the team agrees on a new convention, you’re one commit away from changing the whole code base to it.

The point here is not that a monorepo allows you to change code conventions quickly; the point is that atomic changes give you options you don’t have in a polyrepo.

Another situation in which I’ve seen a staggering difference is ops-driven changes. Let me provide an example to illustrate it.

Say you’re deploying your applications on some Kubernetes clusters and co-locate your deployment descriptors (a fancy name for an “ugly, big yaml file”) with the code of each project.

One day your operations team comes up with some custom resource definitions that greatly improve the operations of your apps (think health checks, logs, metrics). The challenge is that you need to change all your deployment descriptors to benefit from these improvements.

In a polyrepo, you’d start thinking about some migration strategy: deprecate the current descriptors, make a list of descriptors to change, change them one by one. It’s possible but it’s not comfortable.

In a monorepo, your strategy would be very different. You’d prepare a commit with all the new descriptors and ship it. Your operations team can do this without any coordination with the rest of the organisation.

No migration strategy, no deprecation policy, no transition period. Yes, it’s that easy.

Small is easy, big is possible #

The fact that you can make however large, atomic changes in a monorepo makes impossibly large changes possible.

My favourite example of this is how Stripe migrated millions of lines of code to TypeScript.

Can you imagine carrying out this intrinsically complex migration while having to do it in hundreds of repositories with as many pull-requests?

I can’t really picture it.

The point is more general than this example though.

A monorepo is a number of known constraints about a codebase. Things like “libraries are here”, “all our JavaScript projects use yarn”, “docs are always valid markdown and in a docs directory at the root of each project” allow you to design big changes to the code base you wouldn’t even begin to imagine in a polyrepo setup.

The point is that constraints unlock creativity. I believe this is valid well outside the boundaries of a monorepo, but that’s a different story.

Small changes also benefit from a monorepo approach.

Because all projects use the same “project infrastructure” (build, test, deployment scripts, and so on), a developer can get on in a project, make a small change, run its tests, lint its code, and finally submit a change request without having to learn anything specific about the project apart from its code.

Auto-generation #

The most important constraint a monorepo gives you is that the code is all in the same place. It is so obvious you must be wondering why I’m bringing it up again.

While the fact itself is obvious, its long-term consequences aren’t. Especially to those that have never worked in a monorepo.

Let’s start from the most staggering difference between a monorepo and a polyrepo in the context of code generation: data formats and their interface description language.

It’s common for data formats to require generated code (the widely diffused protocol buffers works like that) and frankly speaking I can’t imagine how this works in a polyrepo setup. Submodules from version control? Some scripts that download a central version of all types?

When it comes to data formats, a polyrepo just seems to be an unnecessary complication.

In a monorepo, you have a top-level directory with all your definitions. Then you have one auto-generated “library” for each programming language that needs to use the data formats. And finally your projects depend on it. It feels like it takes longer to explain that in plain English than to set it up.

Auto-generated artifacts are my favourite example of “the somewhat unintended consequences of co-locating all the projects in the same repo”.

There is a whole class of problems you wouldn’t even think to solve with auto-generated code if you didn’t have access to all the code at the same time from the same tools. Maybe you wouldn’t solve some of these problems at all.

Let me provide an example from my career to illustrate the point.

When I was working at, we often ran into a trivial but annoying operational problem.

Our platform was heavily based on Kafka so, often enough, we shipped new Kafka Streams applications relying on topics that didn’t exist in our production clusters yet.

These applications would obviously crash on start ๐Ÿ™ƒ. So, every time this happened, we had to stop them, create the necessary topics manually (with the right config!), and restart the applications.

We solved the problem by introducing a small application that found all our topics used in the code base and generated topics creation scripts for us (with the right config!).

You can check out its code here (yay open source!).

This isn’t rocket science but the point stands: we could only solve the problem with a trivial approach (it’s literally one Java class) because of the existing constraints the monorepo gave us.

You can apply this idea to many things, not just code. It works well with assets (like sharing images that have been optimised according to your needs), translations (generating code-friendly I18n assets), documentation, and so on.

Increased visibility #

When working in an organisation with multiple teams, it’s only natural to lose some visibility over what other teams are doing.

There’s nothing intrinsically wrong with this, and you could argue that it’s often a welcomed limitation. It allows team members to stay focused on their own challenges.

On the other hand though, the more teams in an organisation, the more common it is for different teams to solve the same problems multiple times, the more communication infrastructure is needed (internal blog posts, lighting talks, and so on) to keep a coherent vision going.

A polyrepo approach only makes this problem more evident: it’s easy to miss work in repositories you don’t have anything to do with. Sometimes, even unintentionally, you may not even see a repo because no one gives you access to it.

In a monorepo, visibility works very differently. Everything is visible by default, so you tend to have the opposite problem: too much information coming your way.

In my experience, this is a far better trade-off because it allows for more granular choices.

People can follow along a part of the system they don’t work with with a minimal effort. If they don’t want to, they don’t need to.

Putting all the code in the same repo also makes everything more discoverable.

You may not want to follow how your organisation does, say, infrastructure-as-code on a daily basis, but it’s great to have the option to cd into /infrastructure and read the “internal” documentation when you get curious.

This increased visibility also makes team members more emphatic with the rest of the organisation because they can see the effort that goes into shipping some features.

CI & CD #

In theory, it may be possible to continuously integrate a large code base in a polyrepo setup. I just haven’t seen that work in practice.

Every CI solution I have seen was some variation of an orchestration tool for integration tests.

These “test all the things from all other repos” tools are fun to write. I learned a lot by building a couple of them. But they don’t work very well because of the very nature of the problem they’re trying to solve.

In a monorepo setup, continuous integration is significantly simpler.

First of all, if the languages involved are statically typed, feedback loops tend to be really fast. Broken code won’t even compile after all.

Writing these “test all the things” tools also becomes much easier because you can rely on some specific constraints provided by the monorepo. Things like “all Java code builds this way”, “all the language X libraries are in lib/x”, or “you can run any web apps locally with this command” help a lot while writing code for your test infrastructure.

In my experience, the simplest approach to continuous integration is trunk based development in a monorepo.

Honestly speaking, I don’t think you can practically do continuous integration in a polyrepo setup. It will always be slower than it should be. And this alone is enough for me to always choose a monorepo.

The difference between a polyrepo and a monorepo is also evident with CD.

In a polyrepo, CD is fine when you’re working with one project. You push your code, the CD pipeline picks it up, validates it, and deploys it. Simple enough.

This process isn’t as good when multiple projects are involved.

It becomes somewhat of a manual process in which you push code to the different projects involved in a specific order one after the other.

It’s worth noticing the underlining problem: you can’t really do atomic changes to a system when multiple projects reside in different repositories.

In a monorepo, your workflow can look like this:

  • A new “atomic” commit hits the main branch.
  • The CD pipeline finds all the code that the commit affected.
  • It calculates which projects depend on the affected code.
  • It automatically deploys the projects in the right order.

A monorepo-friendly build tool can calculate reverse dependencies which is the tricky part. Then a few lines of bash will glue the rest together and this “smart” pipeline would be 15 lines of code or so.

Some tools, like gradle, can even detect changes automatically and react accordingly.

On the other hand, I can’t really think of a simple way to build this workflow in a polyrepo setup.

My brain immediately dismisses whatever idea I come up with as too expensive, too complicated. It’s just not worth it.

To mono or not to mono? Which build tool is the question #

Over the course of my career, I chose to set up my teams with a monorepo almost every time I got the chance.

I say almost because twice, even though I had already been pretty much convinced a monorepo yields better long-term results than a polyrepo, I decided against adopting a monorepo.

In both cases, what drove my decision what the lack of monorepo tooling for the specific stack at hand. I came to regret the decision both times. I missed the core benefits of going monorepo too much.

To understand a decision though, you have to look at its context and here it means looking at how many languages and which languages specifically are involved. This is what the conversation around tooling boils down to.

The experience will indeed vary a lot depending on which programming languages are at play in the monorepo. Let me examine the possible scenarios.

The simplest scenario: everything is written in the same language.

If that’s the case, then the support for a monorepo may be pretty good out of the box. For example, TypeScript and Java have excellent tooling. If it’s not that good, a little scripting goes a long way.

It gets more complicated when more languages are involved. I see two different scenarios:

  • You have only two languages and both have excellent tooling. You can get away with gluing together the respective build tools with some scripting. It works, it’s practical, and you get most of the monorepo benefits.
  • You have a lot of languages so you need a build tool that is monorepo-friendly and polyglot at the same time.

Now we’re at core of the question: which build tool should you choose if you were to adopt a monorepo approach today?

My answer is quite grim. None of them is good enough for a clear-cut answer because of their polarised JavaScript support: they either support only JavaScript or they don’t support it at all.

For example, an early-stage startup with a web product, an Android application, and an iOS one would run into some complications adopting a monorepo because of this.

On the other hand, using one build tool for the whole monorepo isn’t a strict requirement.

If you can have one build tool for all your languages, it’s definitely better.

The most difficult challenge when adopting a monorepo in a truly polyglot environment is being able to provide a consistent developer experience regardless of the language.

Since build tools have different degrees of support for different languages, the everyday experience will reflect that difference, and it will be your job to cover that gap.

But if even you can’t use one build tool for all your languages, you can (and my point is you should) still go for a monorepo. You can slowly glue together different parts as the need arises.

Putting all the code in the same repo and calling it a monorepo yields better long-term results than a polyrepo. Simplicity will show its strength in the little details of the every-day tasks.